SCIENTIFIC ISRAEL TECHNOLOGICAL
ON ONE ANTROPOGEMIC FACTOR
OF THE TENSE ECOLOGICAL SITUATION
M. Nudelman, E. Manusov
It is known that antropogenic factors have essensial influence on ecological situation and many of them cause ecological collapse in the same regions [De Graaf et al, 1996; Nudelman et al, 1997]. That is why everywhere was adopted a new notion of "sustainable development" [WCED, 1987]. In regions with shortage of water the principal index of sustainable development is the status of water resources. As a rule, these regions include developing countries of Central Asia, the Middle East, etc. Shortage of water in these countries renders to be the basic reason for political tension and political conflicts.
Key words: environmental problems, political sustainability, shortage of water resources.
Cleaner production strategy and tactics, BASED ON systematic approach
General theory, strategy and tactics for Cleaner Production (CP) concept and Manual for CP Tools and Methods are necessary. It would be very useful to have a compendium of the best CP practices and proposals at economic mechanisms of stimulating for the transition to CP technologies. It is necessary to help the CP movement to meet its goals in transition economies as this countries have a lot of development features: methodology for application of CP philosophy to restructuring, military conversion, privatization and economic transition at a national or regional level; practicable program for embodying the CP concept under sweeping changes in the NIS and other transition economies.; priority-based investment programs for and attracting investors to NIS.
Induced polarization method as a tool for the study of seawater invasion into coastal aquifer
Saline pollution of coastal aquifer is mainly caused by the intrusion of seawater. Drilling of the boreholes does not provide discontinued control and requires expanded expenditures. In the same time, electric prospecting in some coastal plain areas (e.g., USA and Senegal) allowed to detect seawater/freshwater interface within sand aquifer by seawater and freshwater resistivities (low and high, respectively). However, in some other areas (e.g. Mediterranean coastal plain of Israel) geological section contains the clays of low resistivity, which cannot be distinguished from conductive seawater-bearing sands. Induced polarization (IP) parameters may be useful for the accurate distinguishing of clay and sand layers. The polarizability of clays has to be higher than the polarizability of sands containing salt water. Suggested methodology foresees the application of the IP equipment that at the same observation point registers the data by the three electric methods: IP, direct current (DC)/resistivity and self-potential (SP) methods. Such combination may substantiate geophysical methodology for the control of seawater/freshwater interface in complicated environments.
DETERMINATION OF SHUT-IN TEMPERATURES IN DEEP WELLS
I. Kutasov, L. Eppelbaum
Thermal measurements in wells are the main source to determine the temperature of the Earth's interior. The drilling process, however, greatly alters the temperature of the formation immediately surrounding the well. The temperature change is mainly affected by the duration of the drilling fluid circulation and the temperature difference between the formation and the drilling fluid. At present is usually assumed that the circulating drilling fluid temperature at a given depth is constant during the drilling process. However, for deep wells (>4000 m) the circulation fluid temperature depends on the position of the drilling bit. Thus, the downhole circulating temperature is a function of time. Our approach is based on applying the Duhamels integral for estimation of the temperature disturbance in formations while drilling. A formula, which describes the shut-in temperature versus time, has been developed. Application of the obtained expression to the temperature data registered in deep wells will allow not only to improve the interpretation reliability, but also to avoid serious interpretation errors. The developed approach has been tested on temperature data from deep well.
ON A PROBLEM OF ENERGY SAVING AND RATIONAL NATURE MANAGEMENT IN ISRAEL
Ya.Sosnovsky, S. Denisyuk
The main factors of all-round energy saving policy are generalized and analyzed, which, in the advanced countries, ensured overcoming of an energy crisis of the 70-ies, stabilization of fuel and energy resources (FER) consumption and improvement of their ecological situation. The structure of fuel and energy balance in Israel by kinds of energy and consumers is analyzed, the zones of the greatest concentration of expenses and directions of use of energy saving reserves are determined.
The conclusion on the necessity of the system approach to the problem, development and realization of the state policy, including creation of favorable economic, legislative, ideological climate, development of national and municipal programs, wide use of a modern technique of energy management at the enterprises is made.
Key words: Power engineering, ecology, economy, energy saving, fuel and energy resources, energy management, energy audit, system approach, value analysis, world energy crisis, renewable and non-conventional sources of energy.
System Approach to Economic-Engineering Calculation and Choice of Environmental Engineering Objects
E. Manusov, M. Nudelman
It seems that systems and technologies of environmental engineering have much in common with the general technologies from the economic stand point, so that the equipment should be chosen according to the criteria of minimum investments and production expenses. However, this approach doesnt take into consideration at least two specific aspects, i.e. non-deviation of the technological conditions and unique character of the processed "raw material"(sewage, solid and dangerous waste, air pollution). Such "raw materials" are immanently characterized by variability. Only some of the processes (see Manusov 1989) can be presented as calculus of probability. Thats why general economic engineering calculations and analysis cannot be applied to environmental engineering processes.
Key words: Environmental engineering, ecological systems and technologies, information type, prior uncertain information, payment matrix, ecological economics.
VORTEX GAS ATOMIZER AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ITS DISPERSION QUALITY
Y. Berkovich, M. Levitsky, Y.Shtemler
A vortex gas atomizer is developed for liquid atomization. Its operational principle and design are expounded, and the results are presented of studying the influence of its structural and operational parameters on the dispersion quality. The tests show that the developed gas atomizer provides for a decrease of more than a half in the average diameter of the spray drops under significantly lower supply pressures in comparison with conventional gas-blast atomizers.
Technology and Principal Results of the Impact on Cloud Processes in Ukraine and Moldova and the Possibilities of Their Use for Precipitation Increase in Israel
L. Dinevich, B. Leskov
The precipitation control is the central task in the field of impact on the atmospheric processes. This can be explained by sharp need of water supply in the Earth. The results of long-term activity on increasing precipitation from various clouds within winter and transitional periods in Ukraine and Moldova are given in current paper. It is shown, that the effect of cloud seeding with the purpose of precipitation increase depends not only upon meteorological and synoptic conditions of cloud evolution but also on correctly chosen technology of influence on concrete cloud. The long-term experimental and industrial activity of influence on various cloud processes aiming for precipitation increase have allowed to prove the following convincingly:
the cloud seeding technology with the purpose of precipitation increase should take into consideration all long-term variety of cloud formation processes, structure and development stage of cloud formation for the influence period;
the cloud seeding could lead to different results of size and sign depending upon the conditions at the moment of influence on the clouds. The research of microphysical condition and a stage of development of cloudy cells or stratums (operative, radar remote or direct) should precede any impact on them and only on the basis of these data the strategy of concrete cloud seeding could be developed.
the technical tools of influence and reagents should allow making the cloud seeding of formations with greatest effect regards their real condition. For instance, different cloudy processes can be developed on various sites of frontal process, including stratum and convective structure. In these situations the application of dry ice granules for cloud seeding of top border of stratum formations and simultaneous usage of pyrotechnic cartridges with AgI for cloud seeding of convective cells can be the most effective. In a number of situations the usage of cloud stratums seeding through their lower border can be the most expedient.
In Israel, within the cold period of year (November - March), the passage of cyclones, troughs and connected to them atmospheric fronts is occurred at the certain combination of macro-circulation processes. In some cases the cloudy systems generated on these fronts represent nimbostratus clouds (Ns and Ns-As). In connection with rather high background of temperatures in them there can be masked cumulonimbus clouds of small vertical development. In winter, the situations when the powerful convection of frontal and air-mass origin is occurred are frequent here. Such a variety of rain-formed processes in a rather short period of a season also demand an application of flexible cloud seeding technology for various types of clouds. As have shown the given results of researches, ignoring by this fact can result to zero, and in some cases in negative result of influence.Key words: precipitation increase, deposits, rain, clouds, convection, cloud seeding, active influences on cloudy processes, layered clouds, convective clouds.
Methods of potable water disinfection
V.V. Goncharuk, O.S. Savluk, N.G. Potapchenko, V.N. Kosinova
The main directions in the potable water disinfection area which are developed in the Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Chemistry of Water of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine are presented. The most important achievements in study of antimicrobial action of some metals including silver; oxidants, such as chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, ozone; a number of physical methods UV-irradiation, electrocoagulation, magnetic treatment are presented. In the Institute a large attention is paid to the development of the complex methods, where several disinfecting agents are used, i.e. UV with silver of copper ions, UV with oxidants, oxidants with metal ions and so on. A search was carried out to find quantitative and qualitative ratio of components in disinfecting mixtures to find out the synergistic effects. Basing upon the experimental data the works are carried out to design new equipment for water disinfection.
RADAR OBSERVATIONS ANALYSISOF SEASON BIRD MIGRATION IN ISRAEL AT NIGHT
(Based on data of radar photo registration obtained in 1998-2000)
L. Dinevich, Y. Leshem, O. Sikora
Above territory of Israel the basic ways of migratory birds coming from Europe and Asia to Africa pass. The reasons of the usual way of flights are easily explained. The geographical position of the country and atmospheric processes developing in this area create here an autumn and in the spring the most convenient conditions of bird flights regards to the wing work optimum power. Such a concentration of birds of passage demands from researchers the development of optimum control methods as well as forecast of migratory intensity and protection of aircrafts from appropriate collisions. For the decision of these tasks definite activity on works on radar-tracking research of birds night flights of birds are conducted in Israel since 1997. Up to the end of 2000 the material for 6 migratory periods (three spring and three autumns) is collected that makes, roughly, more than 600 days or 4800 hours, or about 40000 photos. The analysis of these data has allowed determining the average height of birds night flights. The average night flight altitude (from hourly maximums) was in limits from 1.78?? up to 1.95?? and in the spring from 2.44?? up to 2.87?? correspondingly in autumn within 1998 - 2000.The birds fly much more higher in springtime than in autumn regards to all considered years. The maximum fly altitude in springtime registered for these years is about 5.8?? (in 2000), and in autumn about 5.3?? (in 1999). The average heights for these years were the following within the autumn period: 2.2 km in 1998, 3.31km in 1999 and 2.45?? in 2000; within springtime it were: 3.61km in 1999 and 2.96km in 2000. Some other parameters of night birds flights are submitted also. The method of radar-tracking calculation of migratory birds amount is presented in this article and preliminary results towards the number of birds flying over Israel within spring and autumn migration is performed. Through the cross-section of 50km´ 1km´ 3km some 877 million of birds have flown during the nighttime in autumn 1987 (90 nights), in 1999 - 472 millions, in 2000 - 729 millions (and in view of August - 877 million). Within the spring (90 nights) about 337 million of birds have flown in 1999 and 175 million of birds in 2000. The greatest number of the birds have flown above Israel in these periods was registered in September and October 2000 which constituted about 319 and 306 million of night birds correspondingly.
Key words: birds, ornithology, radar ornithology
No. 2 "Composite Materials"
POLYMERS IN TECHNOLOGY OF MACHINE BUILDING
I. Benevolenski , V. Kestelman , O. Benevolenski
In article dedication ways lowering complexity of productons and metal-capacity of constructons of parts, manufacturing technology and production efficiency at high quality of released commodity. One of a new trends is making metal-plastic units, without applying by mechanical methods and with a high utilization of materials. The effective areas gain such metal-plastic units form-create from plastic.
Key words: form-create, executive surfaces, polymeric compositions, metal-plastic construction
DEVELOPMENT OF HOLOGRAPHIC INTERFEROMETRY FOR INVESTIGATION OF THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE AND QUALITY CONTROL OF WELDED STRUCTURES
L. Lobanov V. Pivtorak
The methods of quality control and determination of the stress-strain state and residual stresses of the welded joints and structures, which were developed on the basis of using holographic interferometry, are presented. Compact holographic units were constructed for examining the welded structures under the conditions of their fabrication and service. Computer systems for processing holographic interferograms and determining fields of displacements, deformations and stresses are developed. These methods and equipment permit investigations of peculiarities of the stress-strain state, distribution of residual welding stresses in the zones of their local concentration, defects in welded joints and structures of metallic and non-metallic materials.
PROTECTIVE CRACK- RESISTANT WATERBORN COATINGS BASED ON VULCANIZED CHLORINE-SULPHO-POLYETHYLENE
O.Figovsky, V.Karchevsky, D.Beilin
The advanced crack resistant coatings based on water dispersion of chlorine-sulpho-polyethylene (CSPE, Hypalon® ) vulcanized by Mannich alkalis (MA) water solution were obtained. Application of MA as a CSPE structure component makes it possible to produce a vulcanized net of saturated polymer, and thus to receive ecologically safe impenetrable crack resistant coatings of any substrates (concrete, metal, plastic, etc.). The coatings can be applied in aircraft-, automotive-, shipbuilding, paint and varnish industries, civil engineering, etc. as a corrosion-resistant material. The optimal coating composition and its mechanical properties have been studied.
Keywords: Chlorine-Sulpho-Polyethylene, Coating, Crack-Resistance, Concrete
BOARD STRUCTURAL TEST OPTIMIZATION STRATEGY
The ever-increasing product complexity and input/output density of new electronic designs has led to deployment of IEEE Std 1149.1 Boundary Scan test techniques to the most of new electronic product designs. The standard In-Circuit test techniques used in older product designs were becoming partly non-applicable for structural testing and on-board programming in a manufacturing environment, because it is increasingly difficult to access with ICT nail each of the nets for structural test purpose. This paper describes the new Design-for-Testability software tool ScanSaverTM that developed in ADC Israel to tackle this problem. ScanSaverTM helps identify the nets on boards that require ICT access. This tool also proposes a quantitative assessment of Boundary Scan and ICT test coverage and helps optimize the placement of physical access points on circuit boards that have a mix of conventional and Boundary Scan technology.
SPATIAL STRUCTURES OF CLAY MINERALS IN SUSPENSION IN RELATION TO THEIR ADSORPTION CAPACITY FOR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS
L.Pavlova , P. Kuprienko , A.Maes, M.Wilson
Natural Ukrainian clays were studied for their spatial structures in aqueous suspensions and for their adsorption capacity for organic water pollutants. To increase sorption efficiency for various organic substances and their mixtures commonly found as components of fuels and oils, a method of surface modification was used. The method involved formation of a modifier layer preventing aggregation and coagulation of the adsorbents. The viscosity and the strength of the spatial structures obtained strongly depended upon the quantity of the modifier. The sedimentation volumes of the clay-based adsorbents also strongly depended on the modifier content. A possible mechanism for the enhanced adsorption capacity at optimal conditions of modification is in the development of a porous spatial structure with weak interactions between the clay particles. The highest capacity for kaolinite clay was shown at 3.0% mass. of the modifier, coinciding with rheological indexes. Low sedimentation volumes demonstrate a disaggregation process. Illite gives the highest adsorption capacity but the weakest spatial structure with high sedimentation volume, suggesting a loose, porous aggregate formation. The adsorption capacity of montmorillonite in its natural and modified form involves interlamella sorption of the pollutant.
Key words: Clay based adsorbents, Spatial structures; Organic pollutants; Surface modification; Hydroxide layer formation; Sedimentation; Aggregation.
ENGINEERING OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY POLYMER MATERIALS
Methods of chemical and material engineering were used for production of novel biodegradable hydrophobic composite materials layer ecoplastics. These ecoplastics consist of thick layer of cellulose substrate and thin layer of biodegradable polymer. Various types of the ecoplastics and their applications were described. Wastes of the novel polymer materials can be utilize by two ways: by repulsing and by biodegradation. This allows improving ecological state of the environment.
: Polymer, Plastic, Material Engineering, Biodegradation, Ecology
A simple model for description the motion of
solid micro particles in gaseous fluids
The hydrodynamic model describing the mutual penetrative motion of polyphase fluids is applied to the movement of the solid micro particles through the gas flow. There have been presented the expressions for resistance forces acting on micro particles from the gas at arbitrary relative velocities. The obtained formulas can be used in a wide region of processes from the movement of dusts and smokes in gas flows to the motion of meteorites and artificial high-altitude satellites.
THE RULES OF FORMATION OF UNITHIOLATE METAL COMPLEXES
K. Ospanov, R. Utegulov, A. Nukhuly, D. Kamysbayev
The thermodynamic characteristics of dissociation processes of sodium dimercaptopropanesulfonate (unithiol) as well as formation of unithiol complexes were determined by using potentiometry and direct calorimetry. The knowledge of thermodynamic functions of complexformation processes permitted to find the general laws of the processes investigated. This is an important information to estimate the direction and the depth of reaction proceedings.
Key words: Unithiol (2,3-dimercaptopropansulphonate of sodium), thermodynamic characteristics, complexformation
NEW WOODEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS BASED ON ECOLOGICALLY SAFE ADHESIVES
O. Figovsky, V. Teper
Due to its ecological safety, esthetical and comfort-giving property wood has always been preferred and chosen among the other materials for dwellings. However, wood has become less available because of its high price. It is well known that wood does not only look differently in cross section, radial and tangential views, but it also has considerably different properties (both physical and decorative) depending upon its orientation. Wood cross section or transverse surface bears rich informational image, allowing to use it uniquely for wood composite materials. The proposed method for particleboard production allows to reduce consumption of binders and avoid surface lamination; it is the energy effective technology that possesses high sanitary and hygienic properties. This becomes possible due to the partial replacement of the pressed mass volume by wood residues. It also creates an effect of genuine wood outlook.The technology is based on application of wood cross section for the facial surface of decorative particleboard formation. For this purpose wood wastes and residues are being sawn in equally high portions and placed to form decorative particleboards. Using various colors and shades of wood and its picturesque cross section structures it is possible to created a wide array of decorative and furniture panels, tiles and fixtures.The proposed method permits to reduce the production cost of furniture panels from wood composite materials by cutting both binders and laminating consumption as well as energy saving by 35%.
Keywords: Wood waste, wood particleboard, fermented wood material, lignin, ecologicaly safe adhesives, biocomposite, wood offcuts, furniture panels, decorative wall panels, formed face layer for molding, microorganisms, bioactivation of raw material, wood degrading fungi, lignin-degrading fungi, bioreactor (fermenter), ultrasonic frequency.
INFLUENCE OF DISTORTION IN POLYMER COATING
ON BARRIER PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Distortion parameters of coating and barrier properties of composite materials: cellulose substrate-polymer coating, were studied in this work. Effective size of micropores of various polymer coatings was varied in the range from 0.8 to 60 nm. Part of free volume of polymer coatings was in the range from 0.02 to 0.12. It was found that biostable PVDC coating had the lowest distorted physical structure, while biodegradable Bioflex coating had the high distorted structure. A correlation between distortion parameters and barrier properties of biostable and biodegradable coatings was established. A biodegradable composite material having good barrier properties was proposed.