Artificial Wisdom Systems

The history, state and perspectives of development

Konstantin Bravy

Science and Technology Center, Ashdod, Israel

Abstract:The multilevel hierarchical knowledge system in the field of artificial intelligence is offered. It is shown that above knowledge system includes the following levels: information systems (for example, “Internet” system), artificial intelligence systems (for example, Expert Systems) and artificial wisdom systems (for example, Intelligent Adviser Systems for operation personnel of industrial enterprises). The scientific and scientifically practical outcomes of the author and his learners in the field of Artificial Wisdom Systems (AWS) are represented. The state of development of the AWS, which are functioning on the basis of formalizing the unconscious activity of a brain in the field of viability maintenance of an organism, is considered. The basic difference of AWS from well-known Expert Systems, which are functioning on the basis of formalizing conscious activity of the experts, is shown.

1. Introduction:

The interest to creation of artificial reason has arisen under effect of "Cybernetics" of Norbert Wiener. This monograph, which, as it is known, has appeared in 1948, has given a push for development of a science about common conformities with a law and processes of control and communication in complex systems. Within the framework of this science the systems theory, applied mathematics, theory of optimization and operations research theory began to develop stormy. These new directions in development of cybernetics in common allowed to recognize the object of research, subject of research and specific methods of research in the field of Cybernetics. Due to rough development of a wide field of knowledge joined by the information approach to research of complex systems, to the beginning 80-th years the Cybernetics already had not only conceptual, but also methodological basis. At the same time Cybernetics till present time has not gained appearance as the usual science. The reason is that the Cybernetics had not the laws, like strict laws of a thermodynamics, which operate in the field of a power engineering, or similar objective laws of a nature, which operate in the field of physics of elementary particles.

In 2001 the author has presented the report [1] under a title “The Laws of Control and Communication in Complex Systems”. This scientific work the author begin in 1985 in the framework of Leningrad Aviation Instrumentation Institute at former USSR, but finished it in Israel in frameworks of a “Ashdod Science and Technology Center”. In the report [1] the author has formulated the laws of the internal environment support in an alive organism of biological systems (“Homeostasis Laws”). The author has shown, that the mathematical description of conformities with a law, through which the action of the objective homeostasis laws are given evidence, is a basis for new directions in development of a science and engineering and for creation of principally new technical solutions in the field of an artificial intelligence.

In offered article the main conclusions from the above-mentioned report [1], which was fulfilled in the frames of “Science and Technology Center” are considered. The main scientific and scientifically practical outcomes of the author and his learners in the field of creation and development of Artificial Wisdom Systems (AWS) are represented. The state of development of AWS, which are functioning on the basis of the mathematical description of the brain activity process in the field of viability maintenance of an organism, is considered. The functional description of the complex knowledge system in the field of Cybernetics is offered. It is shown, that the mathematical description of regularities, through which the action of the objective homeostasis laws are given evidence, is a basis for a new direction in development of a science and engineering and for a new steps in development of artificial wisdom systems.

2. New Scientific and Scientifically - Practical Outcomes

in the field of Artificial Wisdom:

In the report [1] the scientific and scientifically-practical outcomes of the author and his learners in the field of Cybernetics and creation the “Artificial Wisdom Systems (AWS) have been represented. The general outcomes in above area are the following:

1. The flexible control systems (FCS) of vital activity processes of organizations are offered. It is shown, that FCS have advantages of the centralized control systems and decentralized control systems and haven’t disadvantages of these systems.

2. The mathematical description of a flexible control system for viability maintenance processes of complex technical systems is offered. On the basis of the mathematical description of FCS the rational control system (RCS) is offered. It is shown that RCS allows to automatize the processes of production activity control in the field of viability maintenance of complex industrial equipment at industrial enterprises in various branches of modern industry.

3. The laws of viability maintenance of biological systems (“Homeostasis Laws”) are formulated. It is marked that the homeostasis laws are a basis for the description of the objective nature laws in the field of information processing about a state of multi-parameter objects and behavior control of these objects. The examples of the objective laws action in control of vital activities processes of complex systems, which objectively strive to a survival, self-preservation and steady functioning in the external environment, are shown.

4. The main positions of the theory on wise systems, which operate according to the objective homeostasis laws, are developed. For realization of the concept of “wisdom systems” the functional mechanism of the “Intelligent Adviser Systems (IAS)” in the field of diagnostics, maintenance and operating of complex technical objects (power, aviation and others) is developed. It is shown, that IAS are artificial wisdom systems, which are functioning on the basis of mathematical description of unconscious activity of a brain in the field of viability maintenance of an organism. It is shown, that IAS principally differ from known Expert Systems, which are functioning on the basis of formalizing conscious activity of the experts.

5. The experimental sample of the Intelligent Adviser Systems for diagnostics of power steam turbines is developed. It is shown, that our computer-aided system provides self-diagnostics of steam turbines and independently determines who, what, when and how should do for successful performance of the turbine in the limits of its life cycle.

6. The experimental sample of Intelligent Adviser Systems has passed approbation on the example of maintenance and operating of 228MW power steam turbine at “Eshcol” power plant in Ashdod (Israel). The approbation of Intelligent Adviser System has shown that IAS allows to expand considerably the professional possibilities of the specialists in the field of diagnostics, maintenance and operating of steam turbines, which were selected as an example of complex multi-parameter objects.

7. The development of technological complexes of Intelligent Adviser Systems for operation personnel at industrial enterprises in various branches of modern industry is started. It is shown, that development of this project will allow to create “Wise Technical Systems” and “ Wise Medical Maintenance Systems”. The further development of the above-mentioned project of Intelligent Adviser Systems will allow to create the complex of IAS in the field of social- economic and public- political systems.

  1. It is shown, that the development and mastering the Intelligent Adviser Systems will allow to create wise control systems of industrial enterprises. The expected benefit from development of wise control systems is that these control systems will allow to reduce significantly the financial and humanitarian losses arising on the reason of tardy, incorrect or non-optimal decisions of specialists in various branches of modern industry.
  2. It is shown, that the development and mastering the Intelligent Adviser Systems will allow to use effectively the global information systems such as "Internet" for substantial increase of productivity of labor and rate of profit in real sector of world economics. It provides the possibilities to prevent a global economic crisis, which, on the opinion of the experts, threatens to economy of the most developed countries.

10. It is shown, that Artificial Wisdom Systems are the technological basis for origin a new public- political system, which, on opinion of the author, will have advantages of the democratic system of American type and totalitarian system of former Soviet Union and will not have disadvantages of these systems.

3. Structure of the Complex Knowledge System

in the field of Cybernetics

The main scientific outcome of the author is the mathematical description of conformities with a law, through which the action of the objective nature laws in the field of information processing about a state of complex systems and behavior control of these systems (The Laws of Control and Communication in Complex Systems).

The description of the above-mentioned regularities of behavior control of complex systems [1] allowed to offer the functional description of complex knowledge system in the field of Cybernetics (fig. 1). This complex knowledge system is based on three directions in development of a science and engineering, which are known as “Information Theory", “Computer Science ” and “Complex Systems”. Each of these directions in development of a science and engineering has its own application. At the same time in order to develop the Artificial Wisdom Systems these three directions in development of a science and engineering can be presented as three base directions in development of Cybernetics:

“Information Theory", as the section of Cybernetics, is a science about computer systems, on the basis of which the World Information "“Internet" Network, consisting from completely independent local, regional and national networks was created. The global Information "“Internet" Network, as is known, is developed on the basis of creation the specialized Information Systems in various areas of modern post-industrial society.

“Computer Science”, as the section of Cybernetics, is the science engaged in development of methods needed for problem solving, for which there are no formal algorithms. On the basis of “Computer Science” the well-known Expert Systems (ES) are developed. The ES, as it is known, are functioning on the basis of formalizing experience and knowledge of the leading experts in various areas of modern post-industrial world. The especially rough development the Expert Systems received in various areas of modern industry and medicine (1 - n).

“Complex Systems”, on the opinion of the author, is the section of Cybernetics occupied with development of methods needed for optimization of viability maintenance processes of complex systems, which objectively strive to a survival, self-preservation and steady functioning in the external environment. The main sections “Complex Systems”, on the opinion of the author, are: modern Cybernetics, Systems Theory and Theory of Operations Research. The fundamental scientific outcomes in the area of “Complex Systems” created the scientific basis for development of Engineering Cybernetics, Bio-Cybernetics and Social Cybernetics. These special directions of researches in the area named “Complex Systems” are roughly developed. However, until recently within the framework of these sections of Cybernetics it was not possible to receive such scientific outcomes, which are necessary for creation the principally new technical solutions in the field of information processing on the state of complex systems and behavior control of these systems. It is explained by that the theoretical bases of Cybernetics have lost that huge meaning for development of a science and engineering, which it had in 50-th, 60-th and 70-th years of the last century.

The fundamental scientific outcomes in area of “Complex Systems” and scientifically - practical outcomes obtained by the author and his learners in the field of diagnostics, maintenance and operating of complex technical systems allowed to develop the mathematical description of conformities with a law of technical state and operations modes control of complex technical systems. The mathematical description of these regularities and fundamental scientific outcomes obtained in the field of Bio-cybernetics became a basis for development of a science on the common laws and processes of viability maintenance of real physical objects (power, aviation, biological and others), which has received the name "Ergatology". However, these new scientific outcomes in the field of Cybernetics (see fig. 1) have not changed the negative ratio to Cybernetics, which existed among the experts engaged in development of information systems and Expert Systems. The author hopes, that the ratio to Cybernetics of these experts, which consider, that they work in the field of “Informatics”, will vary gradually. The changing of ratio of above experts, on the opinion of the author, will come undoubtedly, when the group of the specialists under the leadership of the author will complete development and mastering of new generation Expert Systems, which have received the name “Intelligent Adviser Systems (IAS)” for operation personnel of industrial enterprises [3]. Novelty of Intelligent Adviser Systems in comparison with well-known Expert Systems (ES) consists in the fact that IAS are functioning on the basis of formalizing the unconscious activity of nature brain in the field of viability maintenance of organism. ES, as it is known, are functioning on the basis of formalizing the conscious activity of experts in the field of their professional activities.

The development of IAS meant for operation personnel of industrial enterprises in various branches of modern industry [3] has allowed to create “Wise Machines”, which (see fig. 1) for the first time in world practice make self-diagnostics of the machine and independently define who, what, when and how should do for successful performance of the machine in limits of its life cycle. For successful development of the project of wise machines in various branches of modern industry the important significance will have the most qualified experts in traditional areas of an applied science and engineering, which took part in development or mastering of Expert Systems (fig. 1). The expected benefit from mastering of “wise machines” in various branches of modern industry is that they allow to reduce considerably the financial and humanitarian losses arising in the frames of industrial firms because of tardy, incorrect or not optimal actions of their operation personnel.

The mastering of “wise machines” (for the first time on an example of power steam turbines) allowed to create the methodology necessary for development of the project "Erganet", within the framework of which the “United Artificial Wisdom System” of modern post-industrial world should be created [4].

On the other hand, the development and mastering of the Artificial Wisdom Systems and scientific outcomes obtained in the field of Social Cybernetics [5], have allowed to formulate the main positions of a science about the laws, methods and means for control of vital activities processes of organizational and organization- technical systems, which like biological systems objectively strive to a survival, self-preservation and steady functioning in the external environment. This new direction in development of Cybernetics (see fig. 1) has received the name “Vitalogy".

The main principals of “Vitalogy" and mastering of the “United Artificial Wisdom System”, which are functioning on the basis of the "Internet" system (see fig. 1), is a basis for development of a science on the laws and processes of quality management of the “mechanisms of wisdom” in various areas of intellectual activity of the human being. This new scientific direction in the global knowledge system of a modern science and engineering has received a title a “Wisdom Science ”.

4. Arguing on New Directions in Development of Cybernetics:

In proposed article the short presentation of the “Ergatology” science about the laws and processes of viability maintenance of real physical objects (power, aviation, biological and others) is offered. The analysis a state of development of Artificial Wisdom Systems in various branches of modern industry and medicine is carried out. The main principals of the “Vitalogy” science about the laws, methods and means for management of vital activities processes of social-economic and public-political systems are formulated. It is shown, that the development of main principals of "Vitalogy " and mastering the “United Artificial Wisdom System” is a basis for development of a “Wisdom Science” about mechanisms of wisdom in complex systems. It is shown that the “Complex Systems”, “Ergatology" and "Vitalogy" are the main stages in development of “Wisdom Science”. It is also shown that “Internet”, Expert Systems and Intelligent Adviser Systems are the general steps of multi-stepped control system, which presents the development process of Artificial Wisdom Systems.

The “Wisdom Science” as well as “Ergatology" and "Vitalogy" is developing on the basis of the mathematical description of conformities with a law, through which the action of the objective laws of control and communication in complex systems is given evidence. At the same time the Wisdom Science has own objects of research and subject of research. The objects of research in Wisdom Science are mechanisms of wise activities in complex systems, which objectively strive to a survival, self-preservation and steady functioning in the external environment. The subjects of research in Wisdom Sciences are methods of quality control of the mechanisms of wise activities in complex systems. In this sense Wisdom Science can be considered as a new stage in development of Cybernetics in the widest sense (see fig. 1).

5. The conclusion:

In offered article the main conclusions from the report [1] of “Ashdod Science and Technology Center” are considered. It is shown, that the mathematical description of conformities with a law of control and communication in complex systems is a basis for development of a Wisdom Science about mechanisms of wise activities in technical, production, social-economic, public-political and biological systems.

The main scientific outcome, which the author represented on the court of a scientific community for the first time, is the description of the complex system of knowledge in the field of Cybernetics. The analysis of proposed complex knowledge system showed that Internet, Expert Systems and Intelligent Adviser Systems are the main steps in development of the Artificial Wisdom Systems (AWS). The present state of AWS’ development is determined by the outcomes in the realization process of wise machines in various branches of modern industry and medicine. The perspectives of AWS’ development is determined by the aims of realization of the “United Artificial Wisdom System”, which is the basis for creation of the mechanisms of wise activities of human being in the modern post-industrial world.

On the basis of the analysis of proposed complex knowledge system became obviously, that development of the United Artificial Wisdom System should be carried out with involvement of the most qualified specialists in traditional areas of an applied science and engineering, which were engaged in development of Expert Systems. Therefore the author invites scientists, engineers, programmers, economists, doctors, sociologists, biologists and other high qualified specialists to begin the cooperation with Ashdod Science and Technology Center for development and mastering Artificial Wisdom Systems in various areas of an applied science and engineering. The author hopes, that the joint operation of various specialists within the frames of the “Erganet” project will allow to create the “United Artificial Wisdom System”, which will provide the possibility to rise significantly the quality of intellectual activity of the specialists in various areas of modern post-industrial world.

References:

1. Bravy K. The laws of control and communication in complex systems. - e-report,

Sciences and Technologies Center, Ashdod, Israel, 2001.

2. Bravy K. Regularities of behavior of goal-oriented systems. - Dep. CNTI “Informcommu- nication”, 1988, N10.

3. Bravy K., Buravlev S. Intelligent Adviser Systems - New generation Expert Systems. - “Scientific Israel - Technological Advantages”, Thom 2, 1999.

4. Bravy K. Erganet. The network of Intelligent Adviser Systems for maintenance of wise activities in various branches of modern industry. - Science and Technology Center, Ashdod, Israel, 1999.

5. Bravy K. A society of the future. - e-article, Science and Technology Center, Ashdod,

Israel, 2000.

Prof. Konstantin Bravy, Ph.D.,

Doctor of Science in “Information processing and control system”,

The Chief Scientist of “Science and Technology Center” in Ashdod, Israel,

Phone/Fax: 972-8-8540815, E-mail: turbokon@netvision.net.il